Anarchy: implies not the complete chaos or absence of structure or rules, but rather than lack a of a central government that can enforce rules.
Balance of payments: net flow of goods, services and financial transactions that takes into account outflows and inflows of money from a state
Balance of payments deficit: a state spends more than it receives from other countries
Balance of payments surplus: a state receives more than it spends in other countries
Balance of power: a condition in which the distribution of military and political forces among nations means no one state is sufficiently strong to dominate all the others. It may be global, regional or local in scope
Bargaining power: the general capacity of a state to control the behaviour of others, power to cause another actor to do an action
Bretton Woods System: name given to the three institutions that comprise the post WWII international political economic system.
Capitalism: a system of production in which human labour and its products are commodities that are bought and sold in the marketplace
Capacity building: providing the funds and technical training to allow developing countries to participate in global environmental governance
Classical Realism: the drive for power and the will to dominate are the fundamental aspects of human nature. The behaviour of the state as a self-seeking egoist is understood to be merely a reflection of the characteristics of the people that comprise that state.
Coercive diplomacy: the use of diplomatic and military methods that force a state to concede to another state. These methods may include the threat of force and the actual mobilization of military forces so as to gradually "turn the screw" but exclude the actual use of force. The implication is that war is the next step if diplomacy fails
Cold War: the period in world affairs from c.1947-1990, marked by ideological, economic and political hostility and competition between the US and the Soviet Union, and drawing in other powers at various levels of involvement
Concert of Europe: the informal system of consultation set up by the Great Powers (Austria, Britain, France, Prussia and Russia) to manage the balance of power at the end of the Congress system
Conditionality: when regional or international lending agencies require that recipient national governments accept certain policy conditions in order to receive a loan or some form of assistance
Conflict: perceived rival and incompatible claims over some desired "good"
Congress of Vienna: meeting of the four main victors over Napoleon and France: Austria, Britain, Prussia and Russia.
Containment: policy pursued by the US toward the Soviet Union c. 1947-1989, the aim of which was to deny Moscow opportunities to expand its political influence abroad, to draw a line and contain the Soviets within their borders
Democratic deficit: leaders have created to many policy making institutions at the global, regional, and national levels with policy-making power led by individuals who are appointed and not elected. Thus policy decisions are not subject to review by citizens.
Defence strategy: involves the assumption that war will be fought with three aims in mind: 1. to punish the aggressor 2. to deny territorial gains 3. to limit the damage to oneself
Deterrence: efforts of an actor to dissuade the opponent from doing something considered against the actor's interests by making the costs of action outweigh the benefits with threat of punishment, the implicit or explicit purpose of this strategy was to avoid actually fighting war
Ecological footprint: used to demonstrate the load placed on the Earth's carrying capacity of individuals or nations. It does this by estimating the area of productive land and water system required to sustain a population at its specified standard of living
Eurodollar markets: free market where buyers and sellers exchange currencies outside of their country of origin
Empire: a distinct type o political entity, which may or may not be a state, possessing both a home territory and foreign territories. This may include conquered nations and colonies
Foreign policy: the articulation of national interests and the means chosen to secure those interest, both material and ideational, in the international arena
Foreign policy style: this describes how a country deals with other states and how it approaches and decision making situation. Example: does the state act multilaterally or unilaterally, does it seek consensus on an issue or go with majority rule.
Foreign policy tradition: a tradition includes national beliefs about how the world works and a list of national interests and priorities based on these beliefs. It also refers to past action or significant historical events that act as analogs and give guidance to leaders about what strategy would best secure their national interests.
Game theory: a branch of mathematics that explores strategic interaction
Global capital markets: these are banks, investment companies, insurance companies, trusts, hedge funds, and stock exchanges that transfer funds to industries and other commercial enterprises globally
Global goods: products that are made for global market and are available across the world
Global governance: Involves the regulation and coordination of transnational issue areas by nation-states, international and regional organizations, and private agencies through the establishment of international regimes. These regimes may focus on problem solving or the simple enforcement of rules and regulations.
Globalization: Fundamental shift in the spatial scale of human social organization that links distant communities and expands the reach of power relations across regions and continents
Great depression: global economic collapse that ensued following the US stock market crash in 1929
Great power: state that has the political, economic, and military resources to shape the world beyond its' borders. In most cases such a state has the will and capacity to define the rules of the international system.
Guerilla wars: conflicts or insurgencies that involve irregular forces. Fighters in these wars use unconventional methods of warfare such as sabotage, ambushes, roadside bombs, and sniping
Human development: the notion that it is possible to improve the lives of people. Basically it is about increasing the number of choices people have. These may include living a long and healthy life, access to education, and a better standard of living.
Humanitarian intervention: the use of military force by external actors to end a threat to people within a sovereign state
Human security: the security of people, including their physical safety, their economic well being, respect for their dignity, and the protection of their human rights. Simply put, it is freedom from fear and freedom from want
ICBM's: inter-continental ballistic missiles
Inflation: money is losing value relative to goods and services produced in an economy
Identity: the understanding of self in relation to the "other." Identities are social and are therefore always formed in relationships to others. Constructivists generally hold that identities shape interests; we cannot know what we want unless we know who we are. But because identities are social and produced through interactions, identities can change
Immigration controls: when a government controls the number of people who may work study, or relocate to its country. It may also include quotas for certain national groups for immigration.
Imperialism: the practice of foreign conquest and rule in the context of global relations of hierarchy and subordination. It can lead to the establishment of an empire.
International law: the formal rules of conduct that states acknowledge or contract between themselves
International order: The normative and the institutional pattern in the relationship between states. Includes issues such as - sovereignty the forms of diplomacy, international law etc.
Monoculture: refers to the use of one genetic strain of plant or animal to replace a diversity of strains
Multiple-sum game: both actors can mutually gain
NIEO: United Nations Resolution of May 1974 for a New International Economic Order to address concerns of LDC's
Non-Aligned Movement: loose organization of Third World countries which dealt with statements on a wide variety of issues from nuclear proliferation to trade and development, first meeting: Bandung, Indonesia, 1955, led by a few relatively strong, independent personalities: Tito, Nehru, and Nasser
Positive peace: the absence of structural violence as well as direct violence
Protectionism: protecting your economy from the
international economy by imposing various restrictions on flow of imports or exports of goods or services into or out of your country
Sovereignty: means a government has the right, at least in principle, to do whatever it liks in its own territory
Structural power: the power to change the rules of the game for others, the power to structure the choices of other actors
Structural violence: latent or hidden forms of social conflict
State: an organized political entity that occupies a definite territory, has a permanent population, and enjoys stable government, independence and sovereignty
Stockholm Conference: UN Conference on the Human Environment, held 1972, was first worldwide environmental conference in history
sustainable development: term coined by Brundtland Commission Report 1987, defined as development which can "ensure that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs"
Terms of trade: the ratio in prices between a country's exports and its imports
Truman Doctrine: a promise of US aid to all 'free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside powers".
UNCED: United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, also known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio 1992. Effort by the int. Community to reach consensus on principles and a long-term workplan for global sustainable development, major output was Agenda 21 (referring to the Twenty-First Century), a global plan of action containing 294 pages encompassing every sectoral environmental issues as well as international policies affecting both environment and development and the full range of domestic social and economic policies.
UNCTAD: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development: formed 1964: first Secretary General Raul Prebisch: called for reform of system of international trade based on liberalism and comparative advantage, in order to assist development of poor countries, included calls for aGSP and IPC
War: legitimate use of organized violence or force to achieve "goods"
Zero-sum game: one actors' gain is another's loss