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Thread: Shura

  1. #1

    Shura



    Introductory Remarks

    Consultation is the most important and main function of State in Islamic political system. The idea of a pure democracy is the hallmark of Shura in Islamic State structure. The term shura is akin to parliament in modern political science.
    Shura is a body consisting of representatives of Muslim community, who assemble for consultation with each other, to reach on decision, for running the government.
    These representatives are supposed to be guided by the injunctions of Quran and Sunnah. It is a consultative body and is not supposed to consist of handpicked men but only those persons who enjoy the confidence of masses.
    The Concept
    The concept of Shura is a divinely-ordained arrangement. It enjoins the high-ups to invite, rather than allow the subjects of the State to participate in solution of the problems concerning the State and its citizens. Mutual consultation is the central idea behind Shura, as Holy Quran[1] states:-
    “Who obey their Lord, attend to their prayers and conduct their affairs with mutual consultation”.
    The object of such consultation is to seek public opinion and consent on certain issues. This conduct of consultation by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was based upon this divine revelation[1]:
    “And consult with them upon the conduct of affairs, and when you are resolved, then put the trust in Allah. Lo! Allah loveth those who put their trust (in Him)”
    This expression of mutual consultation is firstly available in manuals of Islamic history from the episode of famous battle of Badr.
    Kinds of Shura
    During the Caliphate of Hazrat Omer RA, the Shura was divided from unicameral house into a bicameral one, for better management. So Shura can be classified into following:
    (a) Shura-e-Khas
    (b) Shura-e-Aam
    Shura-e-Khas[1]
    It comprised eminent companions of the Prophet (PBUH), scholars and men of outstanding ability, caliber and learning.
    Shura-e-Aam
    It was called after conquests to inform the public at large of the victory and distribution of war booty and also to seek people’s consultation on matters of different public interests.
    Limitations on Shura
    Shura in Islam is bounded and it has to function within the dictates of Quran and Sunnah. This is based upon the divine revelation[1] that,
    “It is not for true believers, men or women, to take their choice in their affairs and Allah and His Apostle strays far indeed”.
    Supremacy of Shura
    From the conventions of the Caliphs and even from the conduct of the Prophet (PBUH) himself, the inferred rule is that the ameer’s consultative assembly is not consisted of his handpicked men but only of those persons who enjoy the favour of masses. They should be those, whose sincerity, ability and loyalty is above reproach in the eyes of the public and whose participation in the major decisions of the State would itself form guarantee of the fact that free and willing cooperation of the masses would be available to the State in the implementation of all the decisions thus taken. Even Head is bound by the majority decision of Shura. Shura can also impeach the Caliph/Head[1].
    Qualities of Shura
    Following qualities and characteristics are assigned to Shura:-
    n Shura is the caretaker of public interest
    n Shura is essentially a guardian of Quran and Sunnah
    n Shura must act according to the needs of the Islamic society
    n Shura is a symbol of Muslim brotherhood
    n Shura is a bridge which enjoins the State with its people
    n Shura is the reflection of people’s superiority over the government
    n Shura acts as a check upon the powers of the head
    n Shura is the centre of Islamic political system
    n Selection of member of Shura rests upon certain qualifications like:
    (a) Muslim (preferably)
    (b) No selfish motives
    (c) Full confidence of people
    (d) Honesty and piety
    (e) A person of sound character, preferably fulfilling the requirements of tazkia tul shuhood
    (f) Well wisher of Islamic State etc.
    Importance of Shura
    Following points are being advocated to show the importance of Shura in Islamic political system:-
    1. It is symbol of unity of whole Muslim community
    2. Expert opinion is formulated on any matter in hand
    3. Peace and harmony in the society is ensured due to Shura
    4. It is true reflection of state and governmental functionaries in a democratic way
    5. It is permanent feature of Islamic State
    6. It interprets the complex questions under the light of Quran and Sunnah and reflects the opinion of general public and eminent scholars.
    Examples of Leading Shuras
    1. Hazrat Umer RA wanted to command the battle of Faris, but the Shura decided that he should stay back and he had to do so.
    2. The issue whether the land of Iraq should be distributed among the armed forces or its revenue should be deposited in the State treasury, was put by Hazrat Umer RA before Shura, which decided that it should be deposited in State treasury.
    3. Hazrat Ali AS before accepting the Caliph-hood, asked the Companions who were gathered in His house, “if you wish it to be so, then come to the mosque, for my acceptance as Caliph cannot be secret, not without approval of the general people of Madina---Majlis-e-Aam.”
    Comparison with Western Concept
    Islamic Shura Western Democracy/Parliament
    Islam is the State religion Not so
    Jurisdiction extends to all over the world Limited to geographical boundaries of State
    Sovereignty belongs to Allah Either itself sovereign or people are sovereign
    Complete rule of Sharia is established under it Rule of man over man is established
    Members cannot override Sharia rules Members have powers to amend or alter the constitution or even any law
    Divine Injunctions are the main sanction behind Shura Whims and will of people is the main driving force
    Concluding Remarks
    According to Hazrat Ali (AS), “I asked the Prophet (PBUH) how to settle the affairs left without guidance from the Quran and Sunnah. He replied that we should convene meeting of the Shura comprising of the pious persons of the Ummah and decide it thereby. He prohibited from following the opinion of a single person”. During the Prophetic (PBUH) era we find three leading examples of Shura i.e. (i) Shura-e-Ahad; (ii) Shura-e-Khandaq and (iii) Shura-e-Hudebiya, which throw light and provide guidance for running the affairs of government, thus Shura forms the basic principle of Islamic State. ‘It must be kept in mind that running of the government by a representative Shura is the method, while election of the representative members of the Shura is a technique. Islam gives methods and leaves the techniques at the disposal of the Muslims. They have to work out by mutual consultation, the way and means of election of the representative members according to their circumstances’.

  2. #2
    This paper is in both languages i.e., English and Urdu which language should be choose to get better marks or it is not necessary to choose English but for Urdu. will urdu have positive influence on the examiner ?

  3. #3
    If you have considerable grip on Urdu then it's preferable; but it does remain so for most of the candidates. A candidate tries to acquire better expression and vocab of English lang. throughout his preparation. Therefore his grip on English assumes comparatively better degree than Urdu. So, I think, in such scenario it is more feasible to opt in English.

    However, in the end it depends solely on your abilities in that specific language.

  4. #4
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    candidate tries to acquire better expression and vocab of English lang

 

 

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