Muslim Terms in European Languages

The following are some of the terms and words which have been absorbed into different European languages through contact with Muslim overseas traders;
Muslin,1, damask2, orange3; lemon4; apricot5; tamarind6; spinach7; artichoke8; saffron9; aniline10; lapis-lazuli11; traffic12; tariff13; risk14; fare; caliber15; magazine16; cheque17; aval; mahotra; etc

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1. From Fench Mousseline, derived from Mosul or Mousssul, a town in North Iraq, where muslins were first manufactured.
2. Damask means Ďof or belonging to Damascusí of the colour of the rose so called; hence pink colour, Today, Damask indicates a fabric of various material, especially silk and linen, ornamented with raised figures of flowers.
3. Orange: Iranian narang, Arabic naranj, adopted through Spanish narunja; Italian arancio; and French orange.
4. Lemon: Arabic and Persian Limun; Italian, Limone; Spanish and French Limon.
5. Apricot: From Arabic Alburquq; Spanish albaricoque; Portuguese albricoque; French abricot.
6. Tamarind: From Arabic Tamr-el-Hind, the Indian fruit, (lit. the copper-coloured fruit of India); French Tamarin; Spanish and Italian, Tamarindo.
7. Through Spanish espinach; Italian, Spinace- so named from the prickles on its fruit.
8. From Arabic, through Italian: artieiaeco, an esculent plant somewhat resembling a thistle.
9. From Arabic saffre, yellow; French safran.
10. From Arabic an-nil; al, the, and nil, indigo.
11. In this word, lazuli is from Arabic or Iranian lajward, blue.
12. From Arabic Ta-friq; Spanish, Trafugo, trafico; Italian traffic; French traffic.
13. From Arabic Tarif, explanation, information, a list of fees to be paid; Spanish Tarifa; Italian Tariffa; and Erench arafa, to inform.
14. From Arabic, through Spanish risko, a steep rock.
15. From Arabic, Kalib, a mould; old Spanish calib; Spanish caliber; Italian calibra; French caliber.
16. From Arabic al, the and makhzen, a warehouse, the latter coming from Iranian ganjina or khazana, a store or treasury; Spanish magacen; almagacen; French magasin.
17. From a check at chess lit. King, the call of King! In chess, from Iranian Shah, King, the chief piece at chess.


Source; Outlines of Islamic Culture (Historical and Cultural Aspects by A.M.A Shushtry