Crime patterns: social dimensions & Crime

gender, age, social cl**** race
Age: 18-24- young. Gender: male, Social class: poor. Race: Disproportionately minority

explaining crime trends

Age, The economy, Social problems, Guns, Gangs, Immigration, Behavior of criminal justice system police, prisons, reentering prisoners
Drugs and drug markets. more police= more arrests


Behavior of the criminal justice system.
Greater enforcement, Behavior of criminal justice system, Law applied disproportionately to certain groups, Practices means some groups arrested more often, May reflect bias


Actual criminal behavior of the individuals. Behavior of individual (actually commits more crime) Need to ask why?May be in response to criminogenic social conditions. May result from discrimination


more or less than the proportion of this group in the population. this treatment refers to races blacks and ect.

Enforcement or Involvement Age:

Enforcement: Police pick up young people as troublemakers more than older people. Youths out more often, more visible to police

Involvement: Young people commit more crime
Older people age out of crime as they develop more commitments to legitimate society

Enforcement or Involvement- gender:

Enforcement: Criminal justice system is chivalrous, not likely to arrest women
Involvement: Women actually less like to commit crime due to different gender-role socialization
fewer opportunities

Enforcement or Involvement: social class:

Enforcement: Criminal justice system defines behavior of poor as crimes. More likely to patrol and arrest in poor neighborhoods.Once arrested, less likely to make bail, afford private attorney or legal expenses important to defense

Involvement: Poor people more likely to commit crimes, Some instrumental (property crimes due to need), expressive: violent crimes due to frustration, anger and rage against limited opportunities. Serious street crimes more likely among lower social cl**** less serious crimes committed by everyone.

Enforcement or Involvement: race:

Enforcement: criminal justice system more likely to stop, question and arrest people of color, all the way through system,racial profiling

Involvement: people of color may commit more crime, consequence of persistent and entrenched discrimination leaving more in poverty, deprived opportunities, unemployment, etc.

Racial treat theory:

as size of racial "minority" increases. Considered to be threatening to white majority with jobs and housing. Therefore producing more social control laws arrest on racial minority


crime rates increase and temp rises. Crime beings to decline above 85 degrees

Crime Facilitators definition

Something that, when present, increases the likelihood that: A crime will occur
The crime will escalate, perhaps lead to violence

3 crime facilitators



Strong relationship
Especially violent crimes
Many victims also drinking
Impulsive crimes more likely to involve alcohol
Alcohol is a disinhibitor
Loosens inhibitions, unleashes behavior we normally control
Affects area of brain that controls emotion
Social context important
Where drinking occurs, and with whom


More complex (drug possession is crime)
Strong relationship to crime
Explanations for why violent crime related to illicit drugs

Psychopharmacological effects of drugs on behavior;

Narcotics reduce aggression, stimulants may increase aggression, hallucinogens create hyperawareness

need to pay for expensive drugs leads to secondary, predatory crimes. Includes selling drugs, robbery, burglary

violence caused by the business of drug trade