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    Important Terms in Criminology 1



    Important Terms in Criminology 1:


    What is Criminology?

    An academic discipline, adopting an integrated and scientific approach to the study of the nature, extent, cause and control of criminal behavior.
    the study of criminal behavior and
    society's reaction to law violations and violators
    (Overlap with criminal justice)

    Theories of Crime Causation

    Individual- biological, psychological
    Society- social cl**** interactions & power & control
    Multiple Causes- develop over life span

    What is a Crime?

    An act deemed socially harmful or dangerous, that is specifically defined, prohibited and punished under the criminal law. theft, rape, murder

    Deviance

    Behavior that departs from social norms

    Norms

    rules and expectations for behavior for members of society. changes over time.

    Crime

    Deviant act becomes crime when deemed socially harmful or dangers; then defined, prohibited and punished under criminal law

    Reactions to deviance and crime: social control:

    the ability of the group to influence the behavior of other people

    Sanctions

    the reactions or consequences of violating a norm or law

    Informal social control

    is response to deviance (norm violation)
    Criticism
    Shunning
    Laughter, etc.

    Formal social control

    is response to violating law
    Arrest
    Fines
    Jail or prison, etc.

    Law:

    norms for behavior (what we should not do) designed, maintained and enforced by the political authority (government) of a society

    From norm to crime:

    ciggerettes

    Visible Crime

    offenses against persons and property committed primarily by members of the lower class.
    Often called "street crime" or "ordinary crime."
    Most upsetting to the public. can be divided into three categories: property, violent, unorganized.

    Crimes of violence

    murder, sexual assault, assault and battery, robbery, hate crimes. Happens when someone knows victim; not usually strangers. serial: far apart murder. mass murder: virgina tech. sexual assult: physical attack or think they'll be attacked. Rape: male on male, female on femal, date rape, rape in marriages. Robbery: "give me your purse"!!

    Property crime

    eco offender wants to gain or destroy property. Larceny/theft, burglary: entering a place to commit a felony; a place you shouldn't be. motor vehicle theft, arson. Property crime highest

    Public order crime

    a.k.a. victimless crimes includes disorderly conduct, prostitution, gambling, illegal drug use. ONly offender is harmed.

    White collar and corporate crime

    a.k.a. occupational crime includes mail theft, forgery, securities fraud

    Organized crime

    Involved in gambling, illegal drugs, loan sharking

    High tech and cyber crime

    Includes use of internet, identity theft, crimes involving computers. against person: cyber harrassment, viruses. govt : cyber terrorism. political: terrorism, treason, esponage, voter fraud

    Consensus View

    Law defines crime. Agreement exists on outlawed behavior. Crime is deviance that creates social harm. Crime and punishment reflect mainstream beliefs. Laws apply to all equally

    Conflict View

    Law is a tool of the ruling class. Crime is politically defined. Crime is behavior that threatens dominance of those with power. "Real Crimes" are not outlawed. Law is used to control the underclass

    Interactionist View

    People with social and moral power define crime. Moral entrepreneurs define crime. Crimes are illegal because society defines them that way. Criminal labels are life transforming events

    Siegal's integrated Definition of crime:

    Crime is a violation of societal rules of behavior as interpreted and expressed by the criminal law, which reflects public opinion, traditional values and the viewpoint of people currently holding social and political power. Individuals who violate these rules are subject to sanctions by state authority, social stigma, and loss of status196200225
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    Last edited by CSSWorld; 25th April 2015 at 02:36 PM. Reason: Criminology, Criminology for CSS, New CSS Syllabus,
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