Total Marks: 200
PAPER – I (Total Marks: 100)

1. Formal and informal arguments: Elements of deductive reasoning, validity and truth, proposition and syllogism.
2. Definition with special reference to Aristotle, Ibn-e-Taimya’s criticism of Aristotle, relativity of definition. Ambiguity, vagueness and emotive use of language as impediments in clear thinking: Fallacies – formal, material and linguistic.
3. Symbolic logic: Value of special symbols, symbols for conjunction, negation, disjunction and implication. Method of deduction: Formal proofs of validity, rules of replacement.
4. The nature of scientific theory, scientific method, inquiry at common sense level and scientific level, scientific explanation, the grounds of belief, induction, probability and functional analysis.
Muslim contribution to logic – inductive and deductive.
PAPER – II (Total Marks: 100)

1. Idealism, pragmatism, vitalism, logical positivism, existentialism and dialectical materialism. The main arguments of these philosophical theories and their impact on life and morals.
2. Muslim rationalists and social thinkers – Al-Farabi, Ibn-i-Sina, Ibn-i-Rushd and Ibn-i-Khaldun; their main doctrines.
3. Schools of Muslim theology – Mutazilism, Ash’arism Sufism, Al-Ghazali (his ethics and criticism of Muslim rationalists).
4. Muslim thought in South Asia with special reference to Shah Wali Ullah, Sayyid Ahmad Khan and Iqbal and post Iqbalian thought.

Suggested Readings

Title Author
1. A Modern Introduction to Metaphysics Drenon, D.A.
2. A History of Philosophical System Firm, Vergilius
3. Aqliyyat-e-Ibn-e-Taimya (Urdu) Maulana Mohd. Hanif Nadvi
4. A Modern Introduction to Logic Stebbing, L.S.
5. Critical Thinking Blank, May
6. History of Muslim Philosophy Vols. I. II Sharif, M.M.
7. History of Modern Philosophy Wreight, W.K.
8. Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits. Russell, B.
9. History of Islamic Philosophy. Fakhri, Majid
10. Introduction of Philosophy. Patrick, G.T.W.
11. Iqbal and Post Kantian Dar, B.A.
12. Introduction to Logic Copi, I.M.
13. Logical Positivism. Qadir, C.A.
14. Philosophical Analysis Urmson, J.O
15. Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam Iqbal, M.
16. Types and Problems of Philosophy Mead, H.
17. Types of Philosophy Mocking, W.E.