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    Mercantile Law- CSS Syllabus

    Mercantile Law

    100 Marks

    I. Law of Contract, 1872

    § Definitions

    § Essentials of a valid contract (Proposal, Acceptance, Consideration, Free consent, Capacity of Parties, Not hereby declared to be Void)

    § Kinds of Contracts (Valid, Void, Voidable, Not Voidable)

    § Variety of Contracts (Contingent, Quasi, Bailment, Pledge, Indemnity, Agency)

    § Performance of Contract, contracts need not to be performed.

    § Breach of contract, consequences of breach, damages for breach of contract.

    II. Sales of Goods Act, 1930

    § Definitions

    § Differences: Sale & agreement to sell, conditions and warranties, express &
    implied conditions.

    § Doctrines: Caveat emptor, Nemo dat




    Essentials of partnership

    Kinds of partnership (partnership at will, particular partnership, limited
    § Rights and duties of Partners
    § Relation of partners to third persons (implied authority of partner, doctrine of holding out)
    § Incoming and outgoing partners (minor)
    § Dissolution of firms (compulsory, by agreement, by court, by notice on happening of contingencies)
    IV. N egotiable Instrument Act, 1881
    § Definitions
    § Types of negotiable instruments (Cheque, bill of exchange, promissory note)
    § Parties to instruments, holder & holder in due course
    § Rules (as to negotiation, presentment, payment & interest, discharge, noting and protest, compensation, acceptance, payment for honour)
    § Special rules of evidence
    § Special provisions relating to cheques & bills of exchange (dishonor, duties of banker)
    § Provisions as to foreign instruments

    § Right and duties of seller & buyer, rights of unpaid seller. III. Partnership Act, 1932

    § Prohibition and abuse of (dominant position, certain agreements, discipline, marketing practices)

    § Approval of mergers

    § Competition commission of Pakistan (established, composition, term)

    § Functions and powers of commission

    § Provisions as to penalty and appeals.

    VI. Electronic Transaction Ordinance, 2002

    § Definitions

    § Recognition and presumption of electronic transactions (writing, signature, stamp duty, attestation etc.)

    § Electronic documents (attribution, acknowledgement, time and place of dispatch)

    § Certification of service providers

    § Application to acts done outside Pakistan

    § Offences & Nature (false information, false certificates, damage to information system etc)

    VII. The Arbitration Law in Pakistan

    § Definitions

    § Appointment, number and removal of arbitrator

    § Award by arbitrator

    § Powers of court upon award (remittance, modification and setting aside of award)

    § Types of arbitration (with or without intervention of court)

    § Stay of legal proceedings in presence of arbitration agreement

    VIII. Consumer’s Protection Act, 2006

    § Definitions

    § Consumer Commission (establishment, powers and functions, complaints before commission and disposal)

    § Provisions as to compulsory recall of goods

    § Duties and liabilities of provider of goods (return and refund of goods)

    § Offences and penalties

    § Contract between consumer and provider

    IX. Companies Ordinance, 1984

    § Definitions

    § Types of Companies

    § Fundamental papers of company (Memorandum of association, articles of association, prospectus)

    § Transfer of shares and debentures

    § Management and administration (promoters, share holders, directors, chief executive, auditors)

    § Meeting’s and proceedings (statutory, general, annual general meeting)

    § Winding up (voluntary, by court)

    X. Electronic Fund Transfer Act, 2007

    § Definitions

    § Payment system and their operation (designation of payment system & revocation, real time gross settlement system, governance & operation arrangement)

    § Payment instruments (designation, issuing and prohibition of instruments)

    § Clearing and other obligations

    § Supervisory Control of state bank

    § Documentation of transfers

    § Notification of error and liabilities of parties

    § Law relating to action before court.


    S. No. Title Author
    1. Law of Contract Agarwala, M. Mehmood
    2. Sales of Goods Act Pollock & Mulla
    3. Bare Acts: Government of Pakistan
    i) Contract Act, 1872
    ii) Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881
    iii) Sale of Goods Act, 1930
    iv) Companies Ordinance, 1984
    v) Arbitration Act, 1947
    vi) Competition Act, 2010
    vii) Electronic Transactions Ordinance, 2002
    viii) Consumer’s Protection Act, 2006
    ix) Electronic Fund Transfer Act, 2007

    S. No. Title Author
    4. Case Law Reading
    i) Carlil vs. Carbolic Smoke Ball Co. (1893) 1 QB 256
    ii) Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain vs. Boots Cash Chemicals Ltd. (1952) 2 QB 795
    iii) Curie vs. Misa (1875) LR 10 Ex 153
    iv) Byrne & Co. vs. Van Tienhaven & Co. (1880) 5 CPD 344
    v) Mohri Bibi vs. Dharmodas Ghose (1903) 30 IA 114
    vi) Derry vs. Peeks (1889) 14 App. Cas 337
    vii) Mannu Singh vs. Umadat Panday (1890) 12 ALL 523
    viii) Coggs vs. Bernard (1703) 2Ld Raym 909
    ix) Lumley vs. Wanger (1852) EW HC (Ch)J 96
    x) Manni Devi vs. Ramayan Singh AIR 1985 Pat. 35
    xi) Lachhman Joharimal vs. Bapu Khandu (1869) 6 Bombay High Court Reports
    xii) Mischeff vs. Springett (1942) 2 KB 331
    xiii) Watson vs. Coupland (1945) 1 all er 217
    xiv) Ashbury Railway Carriage & Iron Co. Ltd. Vs. Riche (1875) LR 7HL 653
    xv) Lee vs. Lee’s Air Farming (1960) 3 All ER420
    xvi) Salomon vs. A. Salomon & Co. Ltd. (1897) AC 22
    xvii) Royal British Bank vs. Turqnand (1856) 6 E&B 327
    xviii) Ram Raja Ram vs. Dhirba Charan Jen AIR 1982 Ori 264
    xix) Badridas Kothari vs. Megraj Kothari AIR 1967 Cal 25
    xx) Hitachi Ltd. & others vs. Rupali Polyester & others (1998 SCMR 1618)
    xxi) Marflower Theatre Trust Ltd. Vs. HMRC (2007) STC 880
    xxii) Pickering vs. Bux (1812) 15 East 38
    xxiii) Liaqat Islam vs. State (2011 YLR 2280)
    xiv) Alamgir Khalid Chughtai vs. State (PLD 2009 Lahore 259)
    xv) United States vs. Forty Barrels and Twenty Kegs of Coca Cola, 241 U.S. 265 (1916)
    xvi) Hedley Byrne & Co. Ltd. Vs. Hella & Partners Ltd. (1964) AC 465
    Last edited by Shehzad; 18th April 2015 at 03:31 PM.



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